Foundational Reading

Profound Little Readers: The Anaysis of What Reading is to Teachers, Parents & Online Tutors

· Teachers,Parents,Foundation of Reading,Child Reading Development,5 Pillars of Reading

 At the initial toddler age, early reading should be done. It's between a parent and the child or the caretaker and the child. Learning to identify the names of each letter of the alphabet, recognizing the sounds the letters represent and listening words to and also seeing words to repeat, can be considered a crucial "one on one" fun learning experience for kids.

By the age of three, there should be acontinuous routine of "Read to Me," while encouraging formal letter identification. Healthily transitioning to years four and five with the foundational skills of:

  • Giving a sound and identifying the letter.
  • Giving a letter and producing the sound.
  • Writing the letter related to its sound, to spell a decoding word.
  • Blending sounds to decode words.

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Therefore they would be at the stage orlevel where they would be reading words with understanding. 

I can add, Reading has its five (5) levels, which teachers and parents must understand for Reading effectiveness to occur in a child.

When teaching (1) Phonics, practising (2) phonemic awareness (segmenting & blending), (3) fluency, (4) vocabulary and (5) comprehension, it must be taught systematically and with precise instructions (Explicit).

Parents and Teachers should read thestories to the Kids aloud regularly however allow them to read decoding sentences. A paragraph or a whole story is optional for kids between ages four to five, but respectfully I prefer decoding sentences because it releases the pressure of what they see on a page, as it will positively destress their mind without their being aware of it.

In addition, at ages five and beyond,the integration of vowel teams, tricky letters such as “ y, c, g, e & s," diphthongs and diagraphs are highly and sternly taught at these ages.
Another important reading integration within that learning year, teachers and parents should focus on the teaching of sight words, beginning from the letter words; two letter words and up. I recommend Dolch Fry Words, starting from the first listed page of 100.


Phonemic Awareness 

Here are the objectives or instructions parents and teachers should be knowledgeable about when interrelating reading with kids:

  • Identify words and sounds that are the same or different.
  • Check to see if words rhyme.
  • Clap your hands as a tool to learn a word in a sentence.
  • Find a word in a set of words that are different.
  • Produce rhyming words.
  • Identify speech sounds that are different in a set of sounds.
  • Clap syllables in words.
  • Blend individual sounds (phonemes) orally.
  • Segment individual sounds in words.
  • Identify the final sounds in words
  • Blend 2—4 sounds (phonemes) words
  • Look for the medial (in or towards the middle) sound, in 1 syllable words.

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Vowel Teams 

A long vowel is a vowel sound that ispronounced the same way as the name of the letter itself. For example, the long U sound is pronounced like "yoo," as in "cube." Two vowels have delicate sounds. This rule is not used for all 2 vowels that work together, but there are times, in which two vowels, including “ai, ea, ee, ei, ie, oa or ue" appear in words, where it is often the first vowel that says its long sound name. Examples are green; rain & clean.


Tricky Letters “y, c, g, e & s” 

Some letters can have different sounds, depending on where they are in the word, or by the letters that surround them.This is one of the main problems students would have when they try to pronounce a word. Tricky words cannot be sounded out easily and it gives students a difficult time spelling as well. Therefore, learning these letters that have rules behind them, can help students learn and identify when to change the sound of a letter in a word. Examples are guy; circle; please & gym.



A diphthong is a sound formed by putting two vowels together in a single syllable. The sound begins as one vowel sound and moves towards another. Examples are ou & ow: round & brown.


The Difference between Diagraphs & Blends 

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Phonetically, learning to read means learning how different letters would work together to make sounds. Diagraphs and blends are different, but they work together inside words. A digraph is a pair of letters that make one sound; however, a blend is a pair or group of letters that work together using each of their sounds separately.


Sight Words 

At the end of a full term, usually 10-12 weeks, a child should be able to automatically spell all 100 sight words with 99.9% student accuracy, in preparation for the next 100 sight word list. The child should show or apply the following skills:

  • Identify and read sight words.
  • Use sight words in context, both verbally and in writing.


High-frequency Sentences 

Remember we discussed the importance of what a student sees, especially if the child may be a struggling reader. Start the child with sentences within that year of learning or diagnostic reading. In High-Frequency sentences the child should show and apply the skills of:

  • Identifying and reading words.
  • Using words in context, both verbally and in writing.



In closing, “Read to me” short stories must be routinely done between birth stages and four years as it can be considered a crucial “one on one” fun learning experience for kids. This does not mean “Read Alouds" should stop at that age as it should continue, but it should be done regularly and routinely to form that fun-loving reading environment. At the initial toddler age, early reading should be done for a child.

Between four to five or six years, the integration of encouraging formal letter and word identification is important while they successfully transition into foundational reading skills.

I guarantee you would have a profound little reader in your hands as they grow in excellence.



Frequently Asked Questions

What is foundational reading, and why is it important for young learners?

Foundational reading refers to the fundamental skills that serve as the building blocks for reading proficiency, such as phonics, vocabulary, and fluency. It is crucialfor young learners as it lays the groundwork for their reading abilities, enabling them to decode words, understand meaning, and become confident readers.

How can I incorporate phonics instruction into my classroom or home?

Phonics instruction can be integrated through a variety of engaging activities. Utilize word games, phonics-based worksheets, and interactive apps to help children identify letter sounds, blend phonemes, and decode words. Incorporating multisensory approaches, such as using manipulatives and incorporating movement, can enhance phonics learning.

What are effective strategies for vocabulary development in young readers?

To enhance vocabulary development, engage children in conversations, expose them to rich and varied texts, and encourage them to use context clues to infer word meanings. Providing regular opportunities for independent reading and discussing new words encountered helps expand their vocabulary repertoire.

How can parents support their child's reading fluency at home?

Parents can support reading fluency by encouraging regular reading practice. Have your child read aloud to you and provide constructive feedback. Reading together, using expression and intonation, can model fluent reading. Additionally, utilizing audio books or reading plays can help children improve their fluency and expression.

What are some effective comprehension strategies to help students understand what they read?

Effective comprehension strategies include activating prior knowledge, making connections, asking questions, visualizing, summarizing, and making inferences. Encourage students to actively engage with the text through discussions,writing responses, and participating in comprehension activities like storymapping or creating graphic organizers.


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